By Ekow N. Yankah, a professor at the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University
* * *
When crack hit America in the mid-1980s, for African-Americans, to borrow from Ta-Nehisi Coates, civilization fell.
Crack embodied instant and fatal addiction; we saw endless images of thin, ravaged bodies, always black, as though from a famined land.
* FUNNY (IN AN IRONIC, NOT "HA-HA" SENSE), MY BUDDY JOEY AND I WERE DISCUSSING THIS AT LUNCH TODAY; WE'RE BOTH IN OUR 50's AND REMEMBER THE CRACK EPIDEMIC - JOEY "PROFESSIONALLY," SINCE HE WAS AN EMT AT THE TIME AND LATER AN EMERGENCY ROOM HEAD RN.
* SPECIFICALLY WE WERE TALKING ABOUT "CRACK BABIES." BOTH OF US REMEMBER THEM COMING IN "WHITE" AS WELL AS BLACK AND BROWN.
* SO MUCH FOR "ALWAYS BLACK."
(*ROLLING MY EYES*)
But mostly, crack meant shocking violence, terrifying gangs and hollowed-out inner cities.
For those living in crack-plagued areas, the devastation was all too real. Children learned which ways home were safe and which gang to join to avoid beatings, or worse.
Even for those of us African-Americans living at a relatively safe distance, there were soul-deadening costs. City centers, and by extension black neighborhoods, were seen in the national imagination as lawless landscapes. We were warned of a new wave of “super predators,” young, faceless black men wearing bandannas and sagging jeans. The addicted, those who preyed on them and those caught by class, geography and especially race were swept together. At the edges of my 12-year-old mind was the ominous sense that no matter how far crack was from my actual life, I was somehow associated with the scourge.
* BLACK ON BLACK VIOLENCE IS THE MOST PREVALENT VIOLENCE; IF THE REALITY OFFENDS... SO BE IT.
Once again, African-Americans were cast as pathological, an indistinguishable and unsympathetic mass.
* AS SOMEONE WHO CAME TO AGE IN THE '70's I CAN ATTEST THAT IT WAS JUST THE OPPOSITE. BLACKS IN THE '70's AND '80's WERE DELIBERATELY PORTRAYED AS ROLE MODELS IN LARGE PART. THINK "GOOD TIMES." THINK "FAT ALBERT." THINK "ALL IN THE FAMILY" AND "THE JEFFERSONS." THINK "THE BILL COSBY SHOW." THINK THE JACKSON FIVE AND THEN MICHAEL JACKSON. FOLKS... THE '70's AND '80's WERE THE ANTI-RACIST YEARS!
The plight of Black America was evidence of its collective moral failure — of welfare mothers and rock-slinging thugs — and a reason to cut off all help.
* WHAT IS THIS BOZO TALKING ABOUT...?!?! THE REASON WHY THE '90's BECAME THE ERA WHERE GINGRICH AND CLINTON CLAIMED TO "END WELFARE AS WE KNOW IT" WAS IN REACTION TO THE EXCESSES OF THE WELFARE STATISM OF THE MID-'60's THRU THE EARLY-'90's!
Blacks would just have to pull themselves out of the crack epidemic.
* Er... AGAIN... MY BUDDY JOEY WAS "PULLING BLACKS OUT OF THE CRACK EPIDEMIC" - LITERALLY!
Until then, the only answer lay in cordoning off the wreckage with militarized policing.
(*ROLLING MY EYES*)
The dormant carrier of this ill-defined disease, harboring a mix of criminality and violence, was the young black male.
* "DORMANT?" (PERHAPS HE MEANT "DOMINANT?")
By my high school years there was no doubting the danger strangers saw radiating off me. When I was in college in the early 1990s, my short dreadlocks meant older women would cross the street to avoid me.
Thirty years later, America is again seeing an epidemic of drug addiction, particularly heroin. The surge is so great that for the first time in generations, mortality among young white adults has risen. But the national attitude toward drug addiction is utterly different.
* NOT MINE!
Even Republican presidential candidates are eschewing the perennial tough-on-drugs speeches and opening up about struggles within their own families.
* THEY ARE...???
More important, police chiefs in the cities most affected by heroin are responding not by invoking military metaphors, weapons and tactics but by ensuring that police officers save lives and get people into rehab. As one former narcotics officer described his change of heart on addiction, “These are people and they have a purpose in life and we can’t as law enforcement look at them any other way.”
* Hmm... I DON'T KNOW WHICH COPS THIS CLOWN (Er... I MEAN "LEARNED PROFESSOR") HAS BEEN TALKING TO... BUT THEY'RE NOT THE COPS I KNOW!
In his inability to name the change that allowed this epiphany, his words also capture our cringe-worthy self-denial.
* SPEAK FOR YOURSELF, PROFESSOR!
Suddenly, police officers understand crime as a sign of underlying addiction requiring coordinated assistance, rather than a scourge to be eradicated.
It is hard to describe the bittersweet sting that many African-Americans feel witnessing this national embrace of addicts. It is heartening to see the eclipse of the generations-long failed war on drugs. But black Americans are also knowingly weary and embittered by the absence of such enlightened thinking when those in our own families were similarly wounded.
* AH... "ENLIGHTENED THINKING..."
(*SMIRKING AS I SNORT*)
* AND BY "SNORT" I DON'T MEAN COKE... OR HEROIN!
When the face of addiction had dark skin, this nation’s police did not see sons and daughters, sister and brothers. They saw “brothas,” young thugs to be locked up, rather than “people with a purpose in life.”
* I SEE SCUMBAGS - WHATEVER THE COLOR!
To be clear, no one laments the violence that the “crack bomb” set off in inner cities more than African-Americans. But while shootings, beatings and robberies cannot be tolerated anywhere, the heroin epidemic shows that how we respond to the crimes accompanying addiction depends on how much we care about the victims of crime and those in the grip of addiction.
* Umm... NO; IT SHOWS THAT WE HATE VIOLENT PREDATORS MORE THAN PLAIN OL' STRUNG OUT DRUGGIES.
White heroin addicts get overdose treatment...
* DON'T BLAME ME! THE ONLY "TREATMENT" I'D GIVE 'EM WOULD BE TO FINANCE THEIR RIDE TO THE MORGUE AND PLANTING THEIR BODIES IN POTTER'S FIELD!
...rehabilitation and reincorporation, a system that will be there for them again and again and again. Black drug users got jail cells and “Just Say No.”
* FRANKLY... I WANT 'EM ALL DEAD.
It would be cruel and perverse to seek equal abandonment of those now struggling with addiction as payback for the failures of the ’80s. Nor do I write in mere hopes of inducing cheap racial guilt.
* HA! HA! HA! SURE YOU DON'T, PROFESSOR...
The hope, however vain, is that we learn from our meanest moments.
Even today, as black communities face pressing problems of addiction and chronic unemployment and the discrimination in hiring...
(*ROLLING MY EYES*)
* MAN! HOW I WISH I HAD BEEN A BLACK WOMAN WHEN I GRADUATED COLLEGE!
...that helps to perpetuate it, many are dedicated to ignoring racial prejudice.
Faced with searing examples of unconscionable police violence against unarmed black men, of concocted justifications laid bare by video, too many still speak of isolated cases and overblown racial hysteria.
With condescending finger-wagging, others recite the deplorable statistics of violence within poor minority neighborhoods as though racist policing were an antidote or excuse.
* THIS IS WHY BLACKS ARE SCREWED - POOR BLACKS ANYWAY. FOLKS LIKE PROFESSOR YANKAH HERE WOULD ALLOW CRIME-RIDDEN NEIGHBORHOODS TO REMAIN CRIME-RIDDEN NEIGHBORHOODS AS LONG AS "THE WHITE MAN" IS REMOVED FOR THE SCENE. FRANKLY... IT'S DISGUSTING. SICK. SAD. DEPRESSING.
Both responses ignore that each spectacular moment of unjustified police violence represents countless instances of institutionalized racial control across generations.
(*JUST SHAKING MY HEAD*)
No sane community faced with addiction and crime would invite or acquiesce to brutal policing as their fate, and no moral community would impose it as a primary response. We do not have to wait until a problem has a white face to answer with humanity.